Glutamine Health Benefits, Safety Uses, Side Effects Dosage 2021
The supplementation in the fitness buffs depends a lot on your goals and needs, but most agree on three basic: protein, creatine, and glutamine. All should be a complement to your diet, and in the case of glutamine, it can be recommended when your training involves a lot of work and resistance.
But … what is glutamine? A non-essential amino acid, that is, that our body can synthesize, and is important for building muscle and maintaining a healthy brain. It is present in foods rich in protein such as chicken, fish, spinach, or eggs.
La suplementación con L-Glutamina es eficaz frente al daño muscular inducido por el ejercicio, favoreciendo la recuperación muscular tras sesiones de entrenamiento intenso. Interviene en el mantenimiento del sistema inmunitario. Previene el catabolismo muscular. Ayuda a mantener un sistema digestivo óptimo.
What is glutamine?
Glutamine is an amino acid that has taken on special importance in recent years and in this post, I am going to give you a few hints of the benefits that this amino acid has in sports, but also in health. To give you an idea of the importance it has, it is an amino acid that is added to the BCCAs, in addition to being one of the amino acids that can be purchased and consumed independently.
Glutamine is an amino acid that is synthesized in sufficient quantities under normal physiological conditions. But in recent years it has been possible to verify that this statement was not correct and in situations of bodily stress (exercise, metabolic stress, surgical stress, intestinal permeability, …) the body is unable to synthesize enough glutamine. That is why it was initially considered a non-essential amino acid and today we can say that it is a conditionally essential amino acid.
Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the blood and with the highest quantity in the cells and at the muscle level, being 61% of the amino acids at the skeletal muscle level. All this assumes that glutamine is half of the total amino acids in the body. Glutamine, together with alanine, transport more than half of the nitrogen in circulating amino acids.
The high concentration of glutamine is justified by its numerous metabolic functions.
- Between 1974 and 1980 (Windmueller and Spaeth) they demonstrated that glutamine had a vital role at the intestinal level. In the intestine, glutamine is the main energy substrate and precursor of ornithine, citrulline, proline, arginine, as well as nucleotides and other substances. Glutamine has a regulatory action on the growth and differentiation of the intestinal mucosa.
- Adequate levels of glutamine in the blood improve nitrogen balance.
- They are involved in the synthesis of amino sugars, which is why it is a precursor of molecules such as N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine, playing a fundamental role in the maintenance of mucin.
- Participate in the citric acid cycle
- Together with vitamin-B6 it acts as a precursor for neurotransmitters such as GABA.
- Decrease the desire for sugar.
- Regulates the secretion of insulin.
- Regulates protein exchange through the mTOR signaling pathway.
- Regulates the acid-base system at the renal level.
Glutamine applications to sports
- Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is usually caused by unaccustomed exercise and results in pain, soreness, swelling, and reduced muscle function. These negative results can cause discomfort and impair subsequent athletic performance or training quality, particularly in individuals who have limited time to recover between training sessions or competitions. In recent years, a multitude of techniques including massage, cryotherapy, and stretching have been used to combat the signs and symptoms of DID, with mixed results, as well as many nutritional interventions. With regard to Glutamine I will point out some reference.
- Legault Z, Bagnall N, Kimmerly DS, in 2015, evaluated how Glutamine could help muscle recovery and muscle pain after an eccentric exercise, being in this case, a quadriceps exercise. It was hypothesized that glutamine intake would accelerate the recovery rate from peak force production and decrease muscle soreness scores during a 72-hour recovery period. Sixteen healthy participants volunteered in a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study. L-glutamine supplementation resulted in faster recovery of peak torque and decreased muscle soreness after eccentric exercise. The effect of L-glutamine on the recovery of muscle strength may be greater in men than in women as only male subjects experienced positive benefits for muscle function after exercise. A 2016 study also found that consuming 1.5 g / kg glutamine / day for 7 days blunted the CK response to a 14 km run in healthy men.
- Several investigations have shown that consuming at least 0.3 g / kg / day of l-glutamine for up to 3 to 7 days can improve muscle function and reduce EIMD biomarkers after harmful exercise.
- Taking supplemental l-glutamine has been suggested to improve immune function and restore plasma glutamine concentrations, which can drop markedly during prolonged exercise.
- Supplementation with L-Glutamine is effective against exercise-induced muscle damage, favoring the muscle recovery after intense training sessions.
- It intervenes in the maintenance of the the immune system .
- Prevents muscle catabolism.
- Helps maintain an optimal digestive system.
Benefits of taking glutamine
- – Promotes muscle growth and regeneration.
- – Avoid muscle loss.
- – Improves intestinal absorption.
- – Detoxifies the body of nitrogen and ammonia.
- – Strengthens the immune system.
- – It is an ally for memory and concentration.
How to take glutamine?
It is recommended for after training and can be taken with or without food, cold of course, to avoid a decrease in its effects. About 20 grams a day, which you can also divide throughout your day into shots of five: just woken up, before training, after training, and before sleeping. It is a beneficial supplement and it is enough not to exceed the doses.
There is, however, a lot of controversy about its real benefits in athletic performance. “Glutamine, except in extreme circumstances such as malnutrition, surgery or multiple trauma, its administration through external nutritional aids is not necessary,” says Pedro Manonelles, president of the Spanish Society of Sports Medicine, in an interview with El Mundo. “An excess in the intake can have negative effects on the kidneys, the heart or the liver”, warns the nutritionist Elena Pérez.
On the contrary, there are studies that conclude that it helps the hydration of cells, protein synthesis, repair of muscle tissues, and increases glycogen levels. And a work published in Nutrition Journal defended that it was useful to recover after a session of intense exercise. And researchers from Oxford proved that it was useful for better assimilation of carbohydrates. As for the price, it is relatively cheap … Try this Prozis bottle for only
L glutamine side effects
while uncommon, high quantities of glutamine can cause some side effects that require a doctor’s attention, including blood in urine, changes in skin color, lower back pain, fast heartbeat, dizziness, or rash. Introducing a glutamine supplement to your diet may cause some mild side effects.
Dosage and Preparation
Generally speaking, you would expect to obtain between 3 to 6 grams of L-glutamine through the foods you eat each day. L-glutamine supplements taken within this range are considered safe for daily use.11
The observed safe level for supplemental L-glutamine in healthy adults is 14 grams per day, according to a 2008 report in Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. Children are generally dosed at no more than 0.7 grams per kilogram of body weight per day (g/kg/day).
L-glutamine is readily found online or in health food stores, pharmacies, and shops specializing in dietary supplements. The supplements are most commonly sold in capsule or powder forms.
What are the benefits of taking glutamine?
Many clinical studies show that glutamine helps ease the effects of cancer treatments, like muscle wasting, oral inflammation, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Supplementation is also linked with shorter hospital stays and lower mortality rates for sick patients.
When should I take glutamine?
The best time to consume Glutamine supplements is post-workout, usually 30minutes within the workout. There is nutrient timing post the workout session, where the ability of the body to absorb nutrients increases. When you consume Glutamine post your workout it helps in muscle protein synthesis.
What does too much glutamine do?
Side effects may happen if you’re allergic to L-glutamine, or if you’ve taken too much. Some effects include nausea, vomiting, joint pain, hives. If any of these side effects, or any other adverse reactions start happening, seek medical attention immediately.
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